Type 1 diabetes vs. type 2 diabetes
Despite their similar names, Type 2 diabetes was historically considered a different kind of disease from Type 1.
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Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes can be described as an autoimmune disease. Because it is often diagnosed in children or teens, Type 1 diabetes is sometimes called juvenile diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes sufferers are affected by an immune system that mistakenly attacks healthy tissues and damages insulin-producing pancreas cells. These attacks cause insulin resistance in the pancreas.
Cells can’t get enough insulin to produce the energy they require. The blood sugar levels increase, which can lead to increased thirst and frequent urination.
Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is when your body doesn’t make enough insulin or becomes resistant to insulin. Insulin moves glucose from your blood into your cells. Your cells convert glucose into energy.
Diabetes symptoms can develop if your cells don’t have insulin. These symptoms include fatigue, increased hunger and thirst, blurred vision, and increased thirst.
What the research says
Early research has shown that there may be more similarities between the two types than was previously thought. Researchers have been testing the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes may be an autoimmune disease similar to type 1.
Research has shown that insulin resistance could be caused by immune system cells attacking the body’s tissue. These cells are designed for the production of antibodies to fight germs and viruses, as well as bacteria. These cells can mistakenly attack healthy tissue in people with type 2 Diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Options
The discovery of type 2 diabetes as an autoimmune disease may have profound implications for our understanding of obesity. It will also impact the treatment of obesity-induced type 2.
- Two traditional methods are currently used by doctors to treat type 2 diabetes.
- The first is about a healthy lifestyle. This treatment focuses on a healthy lifestyle and regular exercise.
- Oral medications are usually prescribed by doctors to boost insulin sensitivity, reduce glucose levels, or perform other functions.
- Insulin may be required if medications fail to work. Insulin injections can be used to help your cells absorb glucose, and then generate energy.
- Diabetes patients may be able delay insulin injections by making lifestyle changes and taking medication. Others might need them immediately.
- Type 2 diabetes can be treated with an immunosuppressant medication. Doctors might recommend immunosuppressant medication instead of insulin and exercise.
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Rituximab (Rituxan MabThera) is one such immunosuppressant medication. It is part of a class of drugs called anti-CD20 antibody. These drugs are intended to destroy immune cells that attack healthy tissue.
Anti-CD20 antibodies were shown to prevent type 2 diabetes in lab mice. Their blood sugar levels were even normalized by the treatment.
Research suggests that people with type 2 diabetes may be able to benefit from medications that affect the immune system. Anti-CD20 antibodies, which are immunosuppressant medication, could stop immune system cells (such as B cells) from attacking healthy tissue.
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Anti-CD20 antibodies can be used to treat autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although immunosuppressant medication is still a distant goal, the first results of using them to treat type 2 diabetes are encouraging.